Electric vehicle battery (EVB) is the battery used to power the propulsion system of a battery-electric vehicle. mostly lithium-ion batteries are used as a rechargeable battery.
Batteries for electric vehicle differs by their relatively high power to weight ratio, specific energy, and energy density. small size batteries reduce the overall weight of the vehicle and also improve its performance.
Rechargeable batteries used in electric vehicles include lead-acid,lithium-ion, Li-ion Polymer, nickel-metal chloride, and sodium nickel batteries. Lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries are used commonly because of weight compared to their high energy density.
These types of batteries are the cheapest and they have high availability. the lead-acid batteries are available in two types
1. automobile engine starter batteries
these alternators are designed to provide starter batteries high charge rates for fast charges.
2.deep cycle batteries
they are used for electric vehicles like golf carts and forklifts and are expensive and have short battery life.
These batteries also have an environmental impact through there construction, use, disposal or recycling.the emission of hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur is occurred while the charging and operation of batteries which are harmless due to natural occurrence
They are less efficient in charging and discharging than even lead-acid but they can give long battery life when used properly. they have also had greater energy density compared to lead-acid batteries.
they have some drawbacks also like lower charging efficiency and have a major issue like self-discharge. they are less ideal for the hotter environment.
these are the standard for modern battery electric vehicles. it has an excellent specific energy and energy density which makes it ideal for battery electric vehicles.
It also self-discharge but its magnitude is lower than nickel-metal hydride batteries. But it is very expensive and also safety concerns have to be considered for this like overcharging and overheating of these batteries. Many companies are working to improve the safety of vehicles that use Li-ion batteries.
These batteries use molten sodium chloroaluminate salt as the electrolyte. It is a relatively mature technology and has a specific energy of 120 W.h/kg and reasonable series resistance. they can last for a few thousand charge cycles and nontoxic in nature. The drawback of the zebra battery is poor specific power.
Batteries of BEV are charged from the power grid from home or charging station. which gets energy from coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear and others. As per nature concern solar cell panels,microhydro or wind are promoted. Charging time is often limited by the capacity of grid connection
The power for charging can be supplied to the car in two ways. The first way is a direct electrical connection known as conductive coupling. it is a simple way. Another way is called inductive charging in which special ‘paddle’ is inserted into a slot on the car. The paddle is the one winding of a transformer, while the other is built into the car. when the paddle is inserted it completes a magnetic circuit that provides power to the battery pack.
Swapping and removing
Swapping is an alternative to recharging where the drained battery or nearly drained battery is exchanged with fully charged batteries. that is done at exchange stations.
the benefits of swapping stations are that the user does not have to consider battery capital cost, life cycle, technology, and maintenance. It is faster than charging.
The major concern is safety with batteries. Battery electric vehicle accidents may occur unusual problems like fires and fumes resulting from rapid battery discharge.
Battery performance testing is used to determine the state of charge and state of health and energy efficiency.